The antibody's HV region forms an opening to surround the antigen's protruding Gln 121 (green). Hydrogen bonds (yellow) stabilize the antibody-antigen interaction. In addition to hydrogen bonds, other weak interactions such as van der Waals forces, hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces improve the binding specificity between antibody and antigen. These interactions occur over large and sometimes discontinuous regions of the molecules, improving binding affinity. The animation shows amino acids of the antibody that interact with Gln 121.
When transcription of bacterial rRNAs and tRNAs is completed they are immediately ready for use in translation. No additional processing takes place. Translation of bacterial mRNAs can begin even before transcription is completed due to the lack of the nuclear-cytoplasmic separation that exists in eukaryotes. The ability to initiate translation of prokaryotic RNAs while transcription is still in progress affords a unique opportunity for regulating the transcription of certain genes. An additional feature of bacterial mRNAs is that most are polycistronic. This means that multiple polypeptides can be synthesized from a single primary transcript. Polycistronic mRNAs are very rare in eukaryotic cells but have been identified. The mitochondrial genomes in mammals and the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum , encode polycistronic mRNAs that are processed into primarily mono-, di-, and tricistronic transcripts. In addition, several viruses encode polycistronic RNAs.
ABR’s psychoacoustic technology was developed primarily, with a few exceptions, through a combination of clinical observation and Pilot Studies. In other words, we studied a small sample of subjects (via EEG) and then predicted possible effects. These effects were then observed in a clinical setting with a much larger group of persons-mostly in my psychotherapy office, in individual or group sessions, and by other therapists throughout the world. It is important, I think, to keep these distinctions in mind as you read over the studies and comments in this section.