The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of UCERIS rectal foam has not been studied. In a study in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and Child-Pugh Class B) dosed with budesonide 4 mg oral capsules, systemic exposure was similar between patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A; n=4) and healthy subjects (n=8), and -fold higher in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B; n=4) than in healthy subjects. For the intravenous dose, no significant differences in CL or VSS are observed. Patients with severe liver dysfunction (Child-Pugh Class C ) were not studied [see Use in Specific Population ].
Glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatories, regardless of the inflammation's cause; their primary anti-inflammatory mechanism is lipocortin-1 (annexin-1) synthesis. Lipocortin-1 both suppresses phospholipase A2 , thereby blocking eicosanoid production, and inhibits various leukocyte inflammatory events ( epithelial adhesion , emigration , chemotaxis , phagocytosis , respiratory burst , etc.). In other words, glucocorticoids not only suppress immune response, but also inhibit the two main products of inflammation, prostaglandins and leukotrienes . They inhibit prostaglandin synthesis at the level of phospholipase A2 as well as at the level of cyclooxygenase /PGE isomerase (COX-1 and COX-2),  the latter effect being much like that of NSAIDs , potentiating the anti-inflammatory effect.