Secosteroid structure

Figure B shows a picture of a male with Gigantism (over-secretion of growth hormone) who had a final height of nearly 9 feet. Longitudinal bone growth occurs at the growth plate by a process called endochondral ossification in which cartilage is first formed and then remodeled into bone tissue. The growth plate consists of three principal layers: the resting zone, proliferative zone, and hypertrophic zone. Growth hormone acts preferentially at the proliferative zone where it stimulates longitudinal bone growth.
Figure A represents Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) where there is disproportionate dwarfism, spinal involvement, and a barrel chest from a COL2A1 mutation. Figure C represents diastrophic dysplasia with a "hitch-hikers" thumb, "cauliflower ear", cleft palate, and short-limbed dwarfism due to a sulfate transport mutation. Figure D represents cleidocranial dysplasia due to defect in core-binding factor alpha 1 (CBFA-1) causing dwarfism and absent clavicles. Figure E represents Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) causing disproportionate dwarfisim with multiple epiphyses involved, shortened metacarpals, valgus knees, but no spinal involvement, all of which are due to a COMP mutation.

“One nanomolar levels ‘of Thimerosal’ in the baby will prevent the macrophages from going through phagocytosis (vaccines using Thimerosal as a preservative contain 125,000 nanomolar level of mercury). In other words, they will lose their ability to eat viruses and bacteria that are in the blood that shouldn’t be there, and so Thimerosal suppresses the immune system. This is well known and has been well described in the literature for a long time; that mercury is an immune system suppressor and you see that these autistic children have a truckload of immune problems. So you would prevent that from occurring. That is documented research and I don’t know how the government can even ignore it, or the agencies of the government can ignore it. ” Dr. Boyd Hayley

Structural relationship of vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol) with their respective provitamins, cholesterol, and a classic steroid hormone, cortisol (see inset box). The two structural representations presented at the bottom for both vitamin D 3 and vitamin D .2 are equivalent; these are simply different ways of drawing the same molecule. It is to be emphasized that vitamin D 3 is the naturally occurring form of the vitamin; it is produced from 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is present in the skin, by the action of sunlight (see Figure 2). Vitamin D 2 (which is equivalently potent to vitamin D 3 in humans and many mammals, but not birds) is produced commercially by the irradiation of the plant sterol ergosterol with ultraviolet light.

Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more [38] or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. [39] [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography . [2] : 10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity. [39]

If vitamin D level in the blood is merely a biomarker, a consequence of good or bad health, then adding  vitamin D to the diet will not necessarily improve your health.  To really know whether vitamin D supplementation is beneficial, we need to look at interventional studies, where supplements are provided, and the outcomes are compared with those of control subjects who don’t get the supplement.  In fact the two above-cited studies on the effects of supplementation on bone fractures in older women, and prostrate cancer in older men are two such interventional studies.  And they showed that vitamin D supplementation was harmful in both cases.  And note that the positive Utah study I cited above–showing a correlation between low vitamin D levels and elevated incidence of cardiovascular disease and stroke–was an observational study, not an interventional one.  The men in that study with the higher vitamin D blood levels and lower incidence of heart disease were not given supplements.

Secosteroid structure

secosteroid structure

Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more [38] or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. [39] [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography . [2] : 10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity. [39]

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